Leaders Are Made Not Just Born – Planning for Leaders And Leadership succession


Petina Winiata, Ngäti Raukawa, Ngäti Toarangatira, Te Äti Awa, Ngäti Awa, Ngäti Whakaue, Kaihautü mö Te Reo / Co-Director of Reo Studies, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki   in association with Turoa Kiniwe Royal


Whakatupuranga Rua Mano – Generation 2000 A Case Study





My task today is to draw on the experiences of the tribal development plan of a Confederation of iwi, namely Te Äti Awa, Ngäti Raukawa and Ngäti Toarangatira (A.R.T.) and discuss this plan in terms of the title of this presentation – Leaders are made, not just born. 


This is Part II of a co-presentation with Turoa Royal and focuses on the tribal development plan called ‘Whakatupuranga Rua Mano’ – Generation 2000 (WRM) that was implemented in 1975 with a 25-year horizon. 


This presentation includes the history of A.R.T., the key players in the facilitation and coordination of WRM, activities of WRM, including the establishment of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki, and an analysis of its success in terms of survival.  The final section describes a view on the title of this presentation within the context of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.



A Brief Account of History:


The three iwi are closely linked by whakapapa and have undertaken many joint ventures over the last two centuries.  Ngati Toarangatira originally came from Käwhia; Ngati Raukawa from Maungatautari and Te Äti Awa from the Taranaki region.  For a myriad of reasons, the iwi left their homelands in the early 1800’s and settled on the west side of the Tararua Ranges from approximately Palmerston North to Nelson.  Today’s descendants describe this area as –


‘Mai i Waitapu ki Rangataua, mai i Mïria te Kakara ki Whitireia,

whakawhiti atu i te moana o Raukawa ki Wairau, ki Whakatü’


Te Rauparaha of Ngati Toarangatira, Te Whatanui and Te Ahukaramü of Ngati Raukawa and Te Reretäwhangawhanga and other chiefs of Te Äti Awa led their iwi to this area.  The numerous migrations passed through Taranaki, particularly Ngati Mutunga territory, close relatives of Ngati Toarangatira.  Some of them were enticed to migrate south with Ngati Toarangatira and Ngati Raukawa and then some continued further south and also on to Wharekauri/Chatham Islands.


The A.R.T. Confederation includes Ngati Raukawa who settled from the Rangitïkei River to the Kukutauaki stream near Waikanae, Te Äti Awa mainly in Waikanae & Käpiti and Ngati Toarangatira from Käpiti to Porirua and Nelson. Major joint ventures between A.R.T. over the last two centuries have reaffirmed the whakapapa ties among the iwi and contributed to their unity as a Confederation of iwi. 


This background has been influential in the acceptance, engagement and fruition of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.  The joint ventures the Confederation have been involved with include the following:



Joint Ventures of The Confederation:


1819 – 1822      Migration from Käwhia, Maungatautari, Taranaki

1850 – 1851      Building and establishment of Rangiätea Church, Ötaki

1860’s              Ötaki Mäori Racing Club

1908                 Ötaki Mäori Boys College

1936                 Raukawa Marae, Ötaki – a Whare Rünanga for the Confederation

Raukawa Marae Trustees established under the Mäori Land Court Act

1943                                  Otaki & Porirua Trusts Board

1975                 Whakatupuranga Rua Mano

1981                 Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki



·         Rangiätea Church was destroyed by fire in October 1995 and the Confederation is committed to erecting a replica of the original church.  Architectural plans have been completed; the artwork is on the way.

·         The Ötaki Mäori Racing Club Course is leased for 99 years to a consortium in Horowhenua.  Renegotiation of the lease is approximately 3 generations away.  The Confederation has an amicable relationship with the lessee.

·         The Ötaki Mäori Boys College building became the original site of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki.  The buildings have been restored.

·         Raukawa Marae is very active with hui of the Confederation and the community.

·         Raukawa Marae Trustees continue to act as a representative body of the Confederation.  All of the 69 Trustees are from the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.

·         Whakatupuranga Rua Mano was reaffirmed in 1997 at a hui of the Confederation of A.R.T. called to consider the future.

·         Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki has 1,500 students.  Of this group, 40% are from the Confederation.  The new marae based studies programme that started last year has 350 students from Whanganui, Whangaehu, Taihape, Porangahau, Arapuni and six marae of the Confederation.



The previous 200 years have formed a strong foundation for hapü and iwi of the Confederation to work and grow together.  The joint ventures have been critical in our development and retention as a people.  Future aspirations and the fruition of these will be the greater because of our history as a Confederation.



Raukawa Marae Trustees:


The Mäori Land Court created the Raukawa Marae Trustees in 1936.  This group has 69 Trustees representative of the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.  The Trustees extended their vision to 25 years when they established an experimental programme of tribal development called Whakatupuranga Rua Mano with a primary goal of assisting the iwi and hapü to prepare for the twenty-first century. Over a period of 3 to 4 years, the objectives and principles were defined and refined as the Confederation learned more about themselves in relation to their social, educational, cultural, economic and political realities around them. 


The Raukawa Trustees were the initiators of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.  While without a register of members, the Trustees estimated that there were about 40,000 descendants, 21 iwi and hapü associated with the 19 marae.  This group met monthly and a standing agenda item was the WRM report.  Typically the item led to discussion on planning and facilitating activities to prepare the Confederation educationally, culturally, politically and economically for the 21st century. 


There were many well-respected kaumätua and pakeke whose action and behaviour were examples of dedication, commitment and generosity.  A strong core of people, who were key in implementing WRM, facilitated its activities and encouraged others to participate.  Due to their performance, the hapü and iwi responded by supporting and uplifting the kaupapa. These people who demonstrated these qualities were key to the manifestation of the kaupapa within the people.  The people wanted to be a part of the kaupapa just as much as those who were initiating the activities.  It could be said also that the hapü and iwi were inspired to express the qualities that were displayed by this core of people.  The hapü and iwi determined their contribution and involvement in WRM. 


The poor educational accomplishments among the Confederation in comparison to the rest of the population were a matter of concern to the Trustees to close the gap.  The Raukawa Trustees often likened the scenario to two cars travelling in the same direction but at different speeds.  Both cars make progress but the gap between them widens.  The car in the front represented the rest of the population and the car at the back represented their own tamariki and mokopuna.  This situation became the impetus to create better opportunities for their whanau.  Any educational improvement would be a welcomed achievement.   Their own education in Äti Awa-tanga, Raukawa-tanga and Toarangatira-tanga was important.  The rejuvenation of the 19 marae and development of members of the hapü and iwi to undertake the formal roles on the marae was also a crucial area to expend energy in.  The activities of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano were geared around these aspirations.



Whakatupuranga Rua Mano:


The development plan had 3 Missions – Päkehä, A.R.T. and Education.  We are all familiar with Mäori Mission i.e. Päkehä people telling Mäori people what is good for us.  Päkehä Mission is Mäori people telling Päkehä what is good for them. 



Päkehä Mission:


The Raukawa Trustees hosted hui for Päkehä people to convince them that;


·         The Mäori language is a national treasure and the gateway to discovery and re-discovery of Mäori culture.  Mäori and Päkehä need to commit to its survival;

·         Aspects of Mäori culture such as whanaungatanga, tangihanga and speaking Mäori language would be of great value to the nation;

·         The promotion of Mäori institutions must be encouraged for Mäori development and as a basis for training both Mäori and Päkehä people;

·         Decisions made by Päkehä for the nation must encourage and promote Mäori language and institutions for Mäori people even though Päkehä may reject things Mäori as having little value for them.


This Mission was exhausting for the Trustees.  The output didn’t meet their inputs. This lack of productivity did not wane their enthusiasm for Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.  Many could have viewed this situation as a lack of success, others as a task too great for the Trustees.  Nonetheless, the Trustees were determined to persevere and kept the ball rolling.  They were exemplars of dedication and unwavering in their pursuit. By the early 1980s the Trustees re-directed their energies into the other 2 Missions. 



Äti Awa-tanga, Raukawa-tanga, Toarangatira-tanga Mission:


The Trustees shaped four Principles that related to their mission in A.R.T.-tanga or discovering, re-discovering and expanding knowledge about themselves.  Existing knowledge and beliefs needed to be identified and discussed then worked into a teaching and learning environment.  Kaumätua and pakeke from within the Confederation gave of their time, energy and generosity to foster the development of the people. 


The four Principles that maintained their focus were:


·         The people are our wealth; to develop and retain

·         The Mäori language is a taonga; to halt its decline and revive

·         The marae is our principal home; maintain and respect it

·         Self determination


These principles were central to the survival of the Confederation.


Activities such as ‘Young Peoples’ hui’ that started in 1976 continue today.  There have been 60 hui since 1976.  ‘Total immersion hui’ from 1979 onwards were major contributions to these principles.  So is Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa and its educational programmes. 


The Raukawa Trustees in association with the Ötaki and Porirua Trusts Board facilitated these events.  The Trustees, kaumätua and pakeke spent many weekends, weekdays and evenings planning, organising and delivering activities to advance the four principles.  Other people such as Mäori Marsden and Hiko Höhepa from outside the Confederation also gave of their time and energy.  


This Mission has been the most actively engaged by far, and has produced the most benefits for the Confederation.  It has rejuvenated the people.  There is a lot of activity, sharing and generosity amongst the hapü and iwi of A.R.T.   


In 1975, the Confederation had no one under the age of 30 who could converse in te reo Mäori.  Today, there are approximately 700-800 descendants under the age of 30 that are able to make themselves understood in Mäori and they are able to understand the language.


In 1975 we had 19 marae.  Now there are 25 active marae of the Confederation and rejuvenation constantly occurring among the hapü and iwi.  The hapü and iwi were given new life and purpose.  They wanted to be a part of the kaupapa.  The attitudes and actions of several key kaumätua and pakeke were instrumental in the engagement of the hapü and iwi.  Nothing else would have transformed the status of the hapü and iwi other than themselves, which probably would have been based on them observing the work of others and the desire to participate and help out.


These principles were in the minds of the Trustees and in turn began to shape and/or re-shape their views and opinions.  There were no pamphlets, apparel, propaganda or neon signs promoting these four principles or Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.  WRM always appeared on the agenda of Trustees meetings and that’s probably the main source of writings about WRM.  It was centrally conceived, but whänau, hapü and iwi were the ‘doers’.  Funding wasn’t an issue.  Koha and small grants from here and there made everything tick like clockwork.


The determination and commitment of our people to this Mission has improved our chances of survival as a Confederation.  We are in a better situation now than in 1975.  However, there is so much more to do.  The risk of decline and extinction still linger close by.



Education Mission:


The final Mission – Education, emphasised the need to raise the scholarly aspirations of the tamariki and mokopuna of the Confederation.  Paying attention to learning and scholarly achievement, particularly but not exclusively, for people of the Confederation.


A strategy employed by the Trustees was to identify professions and careers and set goals for the Confederation to achieve.


Professions                                         No. at 1975                             Goals

A) Accountancy                                2                          10 by 1985;  20 by 1990

b)  Agriculture                                   1                          5   by 1985;  10 by 1990

c)  Architecture                                 2                          5   by 1990;  10 by 2000

d)  Dentistry                                      -                          5   by 1990;  10 by 2000

e)  Engineering                                  1                          5   by 1990;  10 by 2000

f)  High School Teaching                    5                          15 by 1985;  30 by 1990

g)  Law                                             1                          10 by 1990;  20 by 2000

h)  Medicine                                      2                          10 by 1990;  20 by 2000

i)   Ministry                                        1                          10 by 1985;  20 by 1990

j)   Professional Music                        1                          5   by 1985;  10 by 1990

k)  Veterinary Science                       1                          5   by 1990;  10 by 2000


It was hoped that the rangatahi would recognise the urgency of these goals and set out to make their contribution.  The targets were guidelines for achievement but the main incentive was to affect behaviour by making the rangatahi think about what could be their contribution to scholarship.


The emergence of Te Wänanga o Raukawa at Ötaki in 1981 provided new study options for the Confederation.  Te Wänanga o Raukawa offers Certificate, Diploma, Degree and Masters programmes.  A PhD programme will be offered in 2002.  The range of opportunities of study has been increased and quality of life enhanced.


All 3 Missions have required a lot of dedication, determination, commitment and energy.  The initiative came from firstly, the Raukawa Trustees.  Secondly, from a core group of individuals who were totally committed to WRM.  They weathered the storms, bore the brunt of frustrations but did not deviate from the kaupapa.  Thirdly, whänau, hapü and iwi led themselves further to prepare their own destiny. 


In terms of the four principles, the hapü and iwi have progressed in te reo Mäori, marae maintenance and respect, the development and retention of the people and independence or self-governance.  Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa in Ötaki is a significant expression of self-determination.  Despite these successes and achievements, to say that the Confederation is ‘out of the woods’ and surviving well would be illusory. 


The last 25 years have created a better quality of life, but what of the next millennium?  Will we still be around?  Ko wai ka hua, ko wai ka tohu?  Who will know?  We must plan our future.  In considering future planning, we ought to examine what has occurred over the last 25 years.  Back to the Future!






A Model For Success:


In assessing the performance of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, a model for success will be used that was part of a Master of Mätauranga Mäori thesis by Pakake Winiata in 1997.  The model was produced as a result of examining successful Mäori events and activities such as Te Mäori, Te Aurere, Waka hourua, Waka 1990 Celebrations and Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.  What were the determinants of success in these events?  The model for success identifies six determinants:


·         Ka uru ngä wähanga katoa o te iwi hei whakapümau i töna mana

Every section of the iwi were involved in retaining its mana

·         Ka huraina, ka whakapümautia, ka whakawhänuitia te Mätauranga Mäori

Re-discovered, discovered, restored and extended Mäori knowledge

·         Ka whakapakaritia te hunga rangatahi

Rangatahi were involved, strengthened and gained a lot of knowledge

·         He oranga wairua tö te kaupapa mö te iwi

The kaupapa was spiritually uplifting for the iwi.  Oranga wairua was important  

·         He Kaihautü tö te kaupapa e kaha ana ki te whakatutuki i ngä mahi

Leaders of the kaupapa were determined for the kaupapa to be successful

·         Ka tautokona te kaupapa e ngä kai-whaipütea

Sponsorship from National and International bodies


In respect to Te Mäori, Te Aurere, Waka 1990 Celebrations and Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, these six determinants were identified.  The four events were spectacular and drew Mäori and non-Mäori together, young and old.  The model for success predicts that if these determinants are present in kaupapa Mäori events, the event will be successful. Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has all of these determinants.  All six determinants must be identified in a kaupapa Mäori.  A score of 4 out of 6 will not produce the same success as 6 out of 6.  The analysis is as follows:



Determinants of the Model for Success –Analysis


·         The activities of WRM included tamariki, rangatahi, pakeke, kaumätua and even non-Mäori. 

Te reo Mäori is central to the activities of WRM and degree programmes of TWoR.  This understanding in te reo Mäori, discovered, re-discovered and advanced our knowledge of our values and practices.

·         The beneficiaries of the activities of WRM were the rangatahi.  After the initial dozen hui, rangatahi designed, called, directed and reported on hui.

·         Learning and speaking te reo Mäori was spiritually uplifting.  Knowing how to speak Mäori is a special joy that is felt deeply in our wairua.  Understanding our values and practices has a similar feeling beyond intellectual stimulation.

·         The Raukawa Trustees facilitated the kaupapa of WRM.

·         The activities of WRM were supported by koha.  In addition, as an offspring of WRM, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa is indebted to voluntary presenters who gave of their time without cost to TWoR.  Either their workplace sponsored them or they gave of their time and expertise without charge.



It is not difficult to determine that the model of success is apparent in Whakatupuranga Rua Mano activities and in its offspring, Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.  What does this mean?  The success of WRM must be meaningful too.  It has contributed towards the survival of the Confederation.  How do we measure this?  What are the variables of survival?  Let us turn to another model that can answer these questions. 



Indicators of Hapu or Iwi Health and Well-being:


The Confederation will survive if its health and well-being is being maintained and/or increased.  An article by Whatarangi Winiata called ‘Hapu and Iwi Resources and their Quantification’ provides a response to the questions above.  In summary, the article describes 16 indicators that define and measure the health and well-being of hapü and iwi.  These are categorised into Human and Physical resources:


      Human –

1.       The number of active members of the hapü or iwi

2.       The number of members who have an extensive knowledge of the whakapapa of the hapü or iwi and can produce it instantaneously

3.       The depth and strength of wairuatanga of the hapü and iwi

4.       The depth and strength of the whanaungatanga within the hapü and iwi

5.       The ability of the hapü or iwi to explain and defend their kawa and tikanga

6.       The strength of the reo within the hapü or iwi

7.       The number of active and effective kaumätua within the hapü or iwi

8.       The state of health of hapü or iwi members

9.       The level of educational achievements of hapü or iwi members


1.       The breadth, depth and general state of the ‘books’ or manuscripts of hapü or iwi

2.       The condition of marae facilities of the hapü or iwi

3.       The number and significance of taonga owned and controlled by the hapü or iwi

4.       The amount of land owned collectively by the hapü or iwi

5.       The size and stocks of hapü or iwi fisheries

6.       The size and state of the financial assets of the hapü or iwi

7.       The value of any radio spectrum parts owned or vested in the hapü or iwi


In confirming these measurements and returning to the questions stated above, if we align the activities of WRM to these variables, how would it size up and be measured in terms of its contribution to the survival of the Confederation?  In brief, WRM scores fairly well.  The activities of WRM have contributed to most of these variables. 


For example, the restoration or renovation of 95% of marae of the Confederation scores well against variables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11.  The ‘Young People’s hui’ and ‘Total Immersion hui’ where te reo Mäori and A.R.T.-tanga were taught and learnt scores well against variables 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9. The establishment of Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa and the required degree prescriptions of te reo Mäori and Iwi and Hapü studies contributes to variables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10.


However, a further critical aspect is ‘favourable’ comments by other hapü and other iwi.  If our activities did not attract favourable comment, this would not maintain or improve the health and well being of the hapü and iwi as measured above. Actions that are inconsistent with generosity only attract negative comments that diminish mana.  The health and well-being of hapü and iwi is better maintained and increased if their actions are mana-enhancing of other hapü and iwi.  Generosity or manaakitanga is critical to this equation of health and well-being of hapü and iwi.


Whakatupuranga Rua Mano and its activities have been successful and have made a significant contribution to the health and well being of the hapü and iwi and to their survival.



Leaders Are Made Not Just Born:


After the presentation of Whakatupuranga Rua Mano and its activities; a model for success and indicators of hapü and iwi health and well-being, it would be appropriate to discuss the topic in which my Uncle Turoa Royal and I were invited to present.


Particular reference to WRM was made when we were approached to present on this kaupapa.  This part of the request has been fulfilled.  The second part is a bit more elusive; discussing WRM in terms of the topic ‘Leaders are made not just born’. Without a doubt, we are both privileged to be a part of this conference and acknowledge the contribution that the tribal development plan Whakatupuranga Rua Mano might present to Conference participants.


The concept of ‘leader’ is limited.  This can be illustrated by comparing the concept of ‘leader’ with the attributes of ‘rangatira’.  Consider these statements about rangatiratanga attributed to Bishop Manuhuia Bennett.


·         Te kai a te rangatira, he korero                   

The food of a rangatira is talk

·         Te tohu o te rangatira, he manaaki

The sign of a rangatira is generosity

·         Te mahi a te rangatira, he whakatira i te iwi

The work of a rangatira is to unite the people


Of these three defining characteristics of a rangatira, the notion of ‘leader’, someone who has followers, is reflected in the third of these statements.  The other two statements about rangatiratanga are not implied in the use of the word ‘leader’.  The term ‘leader’ may be be-fitting of a Päkehä community, but based on our own Mäori knowledge base, it would not be appropriate for a Mäori community.  There’s more to it than just leading a people. 


The other two statements about generosity and commitment have been demonstrated in rangatira from centuries back and are central to moving Mäori in a particular direction.  The term ‘leader’ is deficient.  Our knowledge base suggests ‘rangatira’ to be more appropriate. Whakatupuranga Rua Mano was little more than a vision and sub visions.  Those who gave effect to the vision displayed the characteristics of rangatira that are listed above. They:


·         Talked about what they wanted to do

·         Did things that reflected a concern for the people of the Confederation while being accepting of the presence of others

·         Emphasised the unity of the A.R.T. Confederation and they acted in ways that were mana enhancing of each other


It is the hope of those who have been associated with WRM that current and future generations will draw insights and understanding from the process of development through the application of the characteristics of rangatiratanga.  Among these characteristics is the more limited concept of ‘leadership’, necessary but not sufficient in itself to explain the development of communities.  Accordingly, a more revealing statement is that ‘rangatira are made, not just born’.  It is hoped that Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has contributed to the ranks of rangatira within the Confederation of Äti Awa, Raukawa and Toarangatira.


Although I may have demonstrated that WRM has been successful for the Confederation in terms of our health and well-being and survival, it may also suggest that in reference to those ‘scores’ against the determinants & variables, that the Confederation does have people, as a result of WRM activities, that could be rangatira for the whänau, hapü and iwi.  That is up to the people to decide. 






Whakatupuranga Rua Mano is about the Confederation, for the Confederation and by the Confederation.  The Raukawa Trustees have facilitated the activities of WRM.  Whänau, hapü and iwi have enjoyed the rejuvenation of A.R.T.-tanga, te reo Mäori, restored or renovated marae facilities, educational achievements and self governance as in Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa.   The survival of the Confederation may be based on its continued contribution to the 16 variables of health and well-being; undertaking successful kaupapa Mäori; extending generosity; enhancing the mana of other hapü and iwi and living according to our values, beliefs and practices. Whakatupuranga Rua Mano has been a strong foundation for the Confederation.


              ‘E kore au e ngaro; he käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea

                I will not be lost; I am a seed sown from Rangiätea’






Royal, Te Ahukaramü Charles (ed.)       Käti au i konei:  He Kohikohinga i ngä Waiata

a Ngäti Toarangatira, a Ngäti Raukawa.

Huia Publishers, Wellington 1991.


Winiata, Pakake                                    He Hauminga Tängata.  Te Whakairo i Tëtehi Tauira Whakaora i te Iwi.He tuhinga hei whakatutuki i ngä tikanga o te tohu ‘Master of Mätauranga Mäori’.  Unpublished thesis.

Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki 1997.


Winiata, Petina                                      Whakatupuranga Rua Mano.He tuhinga hei whakatutuki i ngä

tikanga o te tohu ‘Master of Mätauranga Mäori’.  Unpublished thesis. Te Wänanga-o-Raukawa, Ötaki 2000.


Winiata, Whatarangi                              Whakatupuranga Rua Mano, Generation 2000:

An Experiment in Tribal Development. Paper No.4,

New Zealand Planning Council 1978.


‘Hapu and Iwi Resources and Their Quantification’.

In the Report of the Royal Commission on Social Policy Volume III, Part Two.  Government Print, Wellington 1988.


‘Some Thoughts on a Theory of Managing Mana-a-Hapü and Mana-a-Iwi Relationships’April 2000.